The most common psychiatric diagnoses based on depressive symptoms

(ICD-11)



Adjustment disorder
Adjustment disorder is a maladaptive reaction to an identifiable psychosocial stressor or multiple stressors (e.g., divorce, illness or disability, socio-economic problems, conflicts at home or work) that usually emerges within a month of the stressor. The disorder is characterized by preoccupation with the stressor or its consequences, including excessive worry, recurrent and distressing thoughts about the stressor, or constant rumination about its implications, as well as by failure to adapt to the stressor that causes significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning. The symptoms are not of sufficient specificity or severity to justify the diagnosis of another Mental and Behavioural Disorder and typically resolve within 6 months, unless the stressor persists for a longer duration.

Depressive disorders
Depressive disorders are characterized by depressive mood (e.g., sad, irritable, empty) or loss of pleasure accompanied by other cognitive, behavioural, or neurovegetative symptoms that significantly affect the individual’s ability to function. A depressive disorder should not be diagnosed in individuals who have ever experienced a manic, mixed or hypomanic episode, which would indicate the presence of a bipolar disorder.
Single episode depressive disorder
Single episode depressive disorder is characterized by the presence or history of one depressive episode when there is no history of prior depressive episodes. A depressive episode is characterized by a period of almost daily depressed mood or diminished interest in activities lasting at least two weeks accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, hopelessness, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, changes in appetite or sleep, psychomotor agitation or retardation, and reduced energy or fatigue. There have never been any prior manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes, which would indicate the presence of a bipolar disorder.
Recurrent depressive disorder
Recurrent depressive disorder is characterized by a history or at least two depressive episodes separated by at least several months without significant mood disturbance. A depressive episode is characterized by a period of almost daily depressed mood or diminished interest in activities lasting at least two weeks accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, hopelessness, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, changes in appetite or sleep, psychomotor agitation or retardation, and reduced energy or fatigue. There have never been any prior manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes, which would indicate the presence of a Bipolar disorder.

Prolonged grief disorder
Prolonged grief disorder is a disturbance in which, following the death of a partner, parent, child, or other person close to the bereaved, there is persistent and pervasive grief response characterized by longing for the deceased or persistent preoccupation with the deceased accompanied by intense emotional pain (e.g. sadness, guilt, anger, denial, blame, difficulty accepting the death, feeling one has lost a part of one’s self, an inability to experience positive mood, emotional numbness, difficulty in engaging with social or other activities). The grief response has persisted for an atypically long period of time following the loss (more than 6 months at a minimum) and clearly exceeds expected social, cultural or religious norms for the individual’s culture and context. Grief reactions that have persisted for longer periods that are within a normative period of grieving given the person’s cultural and religious context are viewed as normal bereavement responses and are not assigned a diagnosis. The disturbance causes significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Dysthymic disorder
Dysthymic disorder is characterized by a persistent depressive mood (i.e., lasting 2 years or more), for most of the day, for more days than not. In children and adolescents depressed mood can manifest as pervasive irritability.The depressed mood is accompanied by additional symptoms such as markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities, reduced concentration and attention or indecisiveness, low self-worth or excessive or inappropriate guilt, hopelessness about the future, disturbed sleep or increased sleep, diminished or increased appetite, or low energy or fatigue. During the first 2 years of the disorder, there has never been a 2-week period during which the number and duration of symptoms were sufficient to meet the diagnostic requirements for a Depressive Episode. There is no history of Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes.

Mixed depressive and anxiety disorder
Mixed depressive and anxiety disorder is characterized by symptoms of both anxiety and depression more days than not for a period of two weeks or more. Neither set of symptoms, considered separately, is sufficiently severe, numerous, or persistent to justify a diagnosis of a depressive episode, dysthymia or an anxiety and fear-related disorder. Depressed mood or diminished interest in activities must be present accompanied by additional depressive symptoms as well as multiple symptoms of anxiety. The symptoms result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning. There have never been any prior manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes, which would indicate the presence of a bipolar disorder.

Burn-out
Burn-out is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. It is characterized by three dimensions: 1) feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion; 2) increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one's job; and 3) reduced professional efficacy. Burn-out refers specifically to phenomena in the occupational context and should not be applied to describe experiences in other areas of life.


Diagnostic description: ICD-11 - https://icd.who.int/en