The most common psychiatric diagnoses based on anxious symptoms

(ICD-11)



Panic disorder
Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks that are not restricted to particular stimuli or situations. Panic attacks are discrete episodes of intense fear or apprehension accompanied by the rapid and concurrent onset of several characteristic symptoms (e.g., palpitations or increased heart rate, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness or lightheadedness, chills, hot flushes, fear of imminent death). In addition, panic disorder is characterized by persistent concern about the recurrence or significance of panic attacks, or behaviors intended to avoid their recurrence, that results in significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The symptoms are not a manifestation of another health condition and are not due to the effects of a substance or medication on the central nervous system.

Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia is characterized by marked and excessive fear or anxiety that occurs in response to multiple situations where escape might be difficult or help might not be available, such as using public transportation, being in crowds, being outside the home alone (e.g., in shops, theatres, standing in line). The individual is consistently anxious about these situations due to a fear of specific negative outcomes (e.g., panic attacks, other incapacitating or embarrassing physical symptoms). The situations are actively avoided, entered only under specific circumstances such as in the presence of a trusted companion, or endured with intense fear or anxiety. The symptoms persist for least several months, and are sufficiently severe to result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Secondary anxiety syndrome
A syndrome characterized by the presence of prominent anxiety symptoms judged to be a direct pathophysiological consequence of a health condition not classified under mental and behavioural disorders, based on evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings. The symptoms are not accounted for by delirium or by another mental and behavioural disorder, and are not a psychologically mediated response to a severe medical condition (e.g., anxiety symptoms or panic attacks in response to a life-threatening diagnosis). This category should be used in addition to the diagnosis for the presumed underlying disorder or disease when the anxiety symptoms are sufficiently severe to warrant specific clinical attention.

Generalised anxiety disorder
Generalised anxiety disorder is characterized by marked symptoms of anxiety that persist for at least several months, for more days than not, manifested by either general apprehension (i.e. ‘free-floating anxiety’) or excessive worry focused on multiple everyday events, most often concerning family, health, finances, and school or work, together with additional symptoms such as muscular tension or motor restlessness, sympathetic autonomic over-activity, subjective experience of nervousness, difficulty maintaining concentration, irritability, or sleep disturbance. The symptoms result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The symptoms are not a manifestation of another health condition and are not due to the effects of a substance or medication on the central nervous system.

Cannabis-induced anxiety disorder
Cannabis-induced anxiety disorder is characterized by anxiety symptoms (e.g., apprehension or worry, fear, physiological symptoms of excessive autonomic arousal, avoidance behaviour) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from cannabis. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of anxiety symptoms that are characteristic of Cannabis intoxication or Cannabis withdrawal. The amount and duration of cannabis use must be capable of producing anxiety symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g., an Anxiety and Fear-Related Disorder, a Depressive Disorder with prominent anxiety symptoms), as might be the case if the anxiety symptoms preceded the onset of the cannabis use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the cannabis use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with anxiety symptoms (e.g., a history of prior episodes not associated with cannabis use).

Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder
Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is characterized by anxiety symptoms (e.g., apprehension or worry, fear, physiological symptoms of excessive autonomic arousal, avoidance behaviour) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from caffeine. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of anxiety symptoms that are characteristic of Caffeine intoxication or Caffeine withdrawal. The amount and duration of caffeine use must be capable of producing anxiety symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g., an Anxiety and fear-related disorder, a Depressive disorder with prominent anxiety symptoms), as might be the case if the anxiety symptoms preceded the onset of the caffeine use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the caffeine use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with anxiety symptoms (e.g., a history of prior episodes not associated with caffeine use).

Hypochondriasis
Hypochondriasis is characterized by persistent preoccupation with or fear about the possibility of having one or more serious, progressive or life-threatening diseases. The preoccupation is associated with catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily signs or symptoms, including normal or commonplace sensations, and is manifest either in repetitive and excessive health-related behaviours or in maladaptive avoidance behaviours related to health. The preoccupation or fear is not simply a reasonable concern related to a specific context of the patient, and persists or reoccurs despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance. The symptoms result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Mild personality disorder
All general diagnostic requirements for Personality Disorder are met. Disturbances affect some areas of personality functioning but not others (e.g., problems with self-direction in the absence of problems with stability and coherence of identity or self-worth), and may not be apparent in some contexts. There are problems in many interpersonal relationships and/or in performance of expected occupational and social roles, but some relationships are maintained and/or some roles carried out. Specific manifestations of personality disturbances are generally of mild severity. Mild Personality Disorder is typically not associated with substantial harm to self or others, but may be associated with substantial distress or with impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning that is either limited to circumscribed areas (e.g., romantic relationships; employment) or present in more areas but milder.

Post traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that may develop following exposure to an extremely threatening or horrific event or series of events. It is characterized by all of the following: 1) re-experiencing the traumatic event or events in the present in the form of vivid intrusive memories, flashbacks, or nightmares. These are typically accompanied by strong or overwhelming emotions, particularly fear or horror, and strong physical sensations; 2) avoidance of thoughts and memories of the event or events, or avoidance of activities, situations, or people reminiscent of the event or events; and 3) persistent perceptions of heightened current threat, for example as indicated by hypervigilance or an enhanced startle reaction to stimuli such as unexpected noises. The symptoms persist for at least several weeks and cause significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Body-focused repetitive behaviour disorders
Body focused repetitive behavior disorders are characterized by recurrent and habitual actions directed at the integument (e.g. hair-pulling, skin-picking, lip-biting), typically accompanied by unsuccessful attempts to decrease or stop the behaviour involved, and which lead to dermatological sequelae (e.g., hair loss, skin lesions, lip abrasions). The behaviour may occur in brief episodes scattered throughout the day or in less frequent but more sustained periods. The symptoms result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Obsessive-compulsive or related disorders
Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders is a group of disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviours that are believed to share similarities in etiology and key diagnostic validators. Cognitive phenomena such as obsessions, intrusive thoughts and preoccupations are central to a subset of these conditions (i.e., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, and olfactory reference disorder) and are accompanied by related repetitive behaviours. Hoarding Disorder is not associated with intrusive unwanted thoughts but rather is characterized by a compulsive need to accumulate possessions and distress related to discarding them. Also included in the grouping are body-focused repetitive behaviour disorders, which are primarily characterized by recurrent and habitual actions directed at the integument (e.g., hair-pulling, skin-picking) and lack a prominent cognitive aspect. The symptoms result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is characterized by the presence of persistent obsessions or compulsions, or most commonly both. Obsessions are repetitive and persistent thoughts, images, or impulses/urges that are intrusive, unwanted, and are commonly associated with anxiety. The individual attempts to ignore or suppress obsessions or to neutralize them by performing compulsions. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors including repetitive mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, according to rigid rules, or to achieve a sense of ‘completeness’. In order for obsessive-compulsive disorder to be diagnosed, obsessions and compulsions must be time consuming (e.g., taking more than an hour per day), and result in significant distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Diagnostic description: ICD-11 - https://icd.who.int/en